encoding values

For the first exercise we visualized the number 75 and 37 in twenty different ways:

Exercise-1---Encoding-two-values

Gestalt Principles

Furthermore we read different articles about the "Gestalt Principles". Those include proximity, similarity, continuation and closure.
Two visual objects close to each other are automatically considered to have a connection. On my visualizations above you can differentiate the two numbers by the gap between the both visualizations.
The same is true for similar visuals.

The next principle continuation is which states that elements arranged on a line or curve are more visually weighted than for example color.

Another principle is closure. Our brain completes images or patterns that are only indicated.

dalmation_0
Source: usertesting.com

Override

Those principles can be overridden by color:

similarity-color-over-shape-opt
Source: smashing magazine

Other sources

https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/topics/gestalt-principles